The study of medieval apocalyptic thought can take readers in a number of directions. There are many arguments, disputes and friendly debates about texts, events, and models. Here is a brief guide…

♦  Apocalyptic Hopes and Fears were Important I – Key Works

J. Fried, ‘Endzeiterwartung um die Jahrtausendwende’, Deutsches Archiv fur Erforschung des Mittelalters, 45 (1989), 381-473 [link]; translated as ‘Awaiting the End of Time around the Year 1000’, in A. Gow, R. Landes & D. van Meter (eds.), The Apocalyptic Year 1000 (Oxford, 2003), pp. xx-xx [link].

R. Landes, ‘Lest the Millennium be Fulfilled: Apocalyptic Expectations and the Pattern of Western Chronography, 100-800 CE’, in W. Verbeke, D. Verhelst, and A. Welkenhuysen (eds.), The Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages, (Leuven, 1988), 137-211; idem, ‘Millenarismus absconditus: L’historiographie augustinienne et l’An Mil’, Le Moyen Age, 98 (1992), 355-77; idem, ‘Sur les traces du Millennium: La via negativa’, Le Moyen Age, 99 (1993), 5-26; idem, Relics, Apocalypse, and the Deceits of History: Ademar of Chabannes (989-1034) (Cambridge, MA, 1995); idem, Heaven on Earth: The Varieties of the Millennial Experience (Oxford, 2011).

♦  Apocalyptic Hopes and Fears were Important II – Works Less-Wedded to the Importance of Chronology

C. Carozzi, Apocalypse et Salutdans le christianisme ancien et médiéval (Paris, 1999), translated into German as Weltuntergang und Seelenheil. Apokalyptische Visionen im Mittelalter (Frankfurt, 1996) – although he holds that there was little interest between Augustine and Adso.

R. Emmerson & B. McGinn (eds.), The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages (Ithaca, NY, 1992).

J. Flori, L’Islam et la fin des temps. L’interprétation prophétique des invasions musulmanes dans la chrétienté médiévale (Paris, 2007).

M. Gabriele, ‘Otto III, Charlemagne, and Pentecost AD 1000: A Reconsideration using Diplomatic Evidence’, in M. Frassetto (ed.), The Year 1000 (London, 2002), pp. 111-32. [link]

– – -, An Empire of Memory: The Legend of Charlemagne, the Franks and Jerusalem before the First Crusade (Oxford, 2011).

P. Magdalino, ‘The History of the Future and its Uses: Prophecy, Policy and Propaganda’, in  R. Beaton and C. Roueché (eds.), The Making of Byzantine History. Studies Dedicated to Donald M. Nicol on his Seventieth Birthday  (Aldershot, 1993), 3-34.

R. A. Markus, ‘Living within Sight of the End’, in C. Humphrey & M. Ormrod (eds.), Time in the Medieval World (York, 2001), pp. 23-34 at p. 34.

B. McGinn, ‘The End of the World and the Beginning of Christendom’, in M. Bull (ed.), Apocalypse Theory and the End of the World (Oxford, 1995), pp. 58-89.

J. Palmer, ‘Calculating Time and the End of Time in the Carolingian World, c. 740-c. 820’, EHR, 523 (2011), 1307-31. [link]

– – -, ‘The Ordering of Time’, in Wieser et al, Abendländische Apokalyptik, pp. 605-18.

L. Roach, ‘Otto III and the End of Time’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 23 (2013), 75-102. [link]

J. Rubenstein, Armies of Heaven:The First Crusade and the Quest for Apocalypse (Phildelphia, PA, 2011).

B. Whalen, Dominion of God: Christendom and Apocalypse in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, MA, 2009).

V. Wieser, C. Zolles, C. Feik, M. Zolles & L. Schlöndorff (eds.), Abendländische Apokalyptik. Kompendium zur Genealogie der Endzeit (Berlin, 2013).

J. Wood, ‘Individual and Collective Salvation in Late Visigothic Spain’, Studies in Church History, 45 (2009), 74-86.

♦  Sceptics

D. Barthélemy, L’an mil et la paix de Dieu (Paris, 1999); La mutation de l’an mil a-t-elle eu lieu? (Paris, 1997).

S. Gouguenheim, Les fausses terreurs de l’an mil: Attente de la fin des temps ou approfondissement de la foi (Paris, 1999).

P. Klein, ‘Medieval Apocalypse Cycles and Eschatological Expectations: The So-Called ‘Terrors’ of the Year 1000’, in R. Guglielmetti (ed.), L’apocalisse (Florence, 2011), pp. 267-301.

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